अभयं सत्त्वसंशुद्धिः ज्ञानयोगव्यवस्थितिः।
दानं दमश्च यज्ञश्च स्वाध्यायस्तप आर्जवम्।।16.1।।
16.1 The Blessed Lord said Fearlessness, purity of mind, persistence in knowledge and yoga, charity and control of the external organs, sacrifice, (scriptural) study, austerity and recititude;
16.1 Abhayam, fearlessness; sattva-samsuddhih, purtiy of the mind (sattva), mentally avoiding fraud, trickery, falsehood, etc. in dealings, i.e., honest behaviour; jnana-yoga-vyavasthitih, persistence in knowledge and yoga-jnana means knowledge of such subjects as the Self, learnt from scriptures and teachers; yoga means making those things that have been learnt matters of one's own personal experience through concentration by means of withdrawl of the organs etc.; persistence, steadfastness, in those two, knowledge and yoga;-this [This-refers to all the three from 'fearlessness' to 'persistence in knowledge and yoga'.] is the principal divine characteristic which is sattvika (born of the sattva ality). That nature which may occur in persons competent in their respective spheres, [Persons treading the path of Jnana-yoga or Karma-yoga have sattvika alities. Some of the alities mentioned in the first three verses occur only in the former, whereas the others are found in both or only in the latter.-Tr.]-that is said to be their sattvika attribute. Danam, charity, distribution of food etc. according to one's ability; and damah, control of the external organs-the control of the internal organ, santih, will be referred to later; yajnah, sacrifices-Agnihotra etc. sanctioned by the Vedas, and sacrifices in honour of gods and others [Others: Those in honour of the manes, humans and other beings. Brahma-yajna, the fifth sacrifice, is referred to separately by svadhyaya.] sanctioned by the Smrtis: svadhyayah, study of the Rg-veda etc. for unseen results; tapah, austerity, those concerning the body, etc., which will be stated (17.14-16); arjavam, rectitude, straigthforwardness at all times-. Further,
16.1 The Lord said 'Fear' is the pain arising from the awareness of the cause which brings about pain in the form of either dissociation from the objects of attainment or association with the objects of aversion. The absence of this is 'fearlessness'. 'Purity of mind' is the condition of Sattva, viz., the state of the internal organ being untouched by Rajas and Tamas. 'Devotion to meditation on the knowledge (of the self)' is firm adherence to the discrimination between the pure nature of the self and Prakrti. 'Alms-giving' is the giving away of one's wealth earned through right means to the deserving. 'Self-control' is the practice of withdrawal of the mind from sense-objects. 'Worship' is the performance of the fivefold duties (sacrifices) etc., of life in the spirit of worship of the Lord without attachment to the fruits. The 'study of the Vedas' is devotion to the Vedic study with the conviction that all the teachings of the Vedas deal with the Lord, with His glorious nature and with the mode of worshipping Him. 'Austerity' is the practice of penances like Krchra, Candrayana, vow on the twelfth day of the lunar fortnight, etc., which foster capability for performing acts pleasing to the Lord. 'Uprightness' consists of the oneness of thought, word and deed in one's dealings with others.