श्रीमद् भगवद्गीता

मूल श्लोकः

य एवं वेत्ति पुरुषं प्रकृतिं च गुणैःसह।

सर्वथा वर्तमानोऽपि न स भूयोऽभिजायते।।13.24।।

English Translation Of Sri Shankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary By Swami Gambirananda

13.24 Sah yah, he who; vetti, knows, in the manner described; the purusam, Person, that Self possessed of the characteristics stated above, as 'I myself (am That)'; and knows prakrtim, Nature as described above, which is characterized as ignorance; to have been eradicated by Knowledge, saha, along with; gunaih, the alities which are its modifications; na abhijayate, will not be born; bhuyah, again-after the fall of this body of the man of realization, he does not become born again for (taking) another body, i.e. he does not take up another body; sarvatha api, in whatever way; vartamanah, he may live. From the word api it is understood that, it goes without saying that one who is firm in his own duty is not rorn. Objection: Though it has been said that there is absence of rirth after the dawn of Knowledge, still is not illogical that actions done (in the present life) before the rise of Knowledge and those done subseently, as also those done in the many past lives, should be destroyed without yielding their results? Hence there should be three births! For destruction of acired merit is not logical, to the same extent as actions that have produced the present birth and are yielding their proper results (cannot be destroyed). Besides, it is not understood that actions have distinctions [Since all actions arise from ignorance, they are on the same level so far so they are opposed to Knowledge; i.e., there can be no such distinction among actions as 'those which have started yielding results' and 'those that have not'.]. Therefore, the actions of the three kinds, without exception, will produce three births or they all collectively will produce one birth. Otherwise, if the acired merits become destroyed, it will lead to loss of faith everywhere as well as to the purposelessness of scriptures. Therefore it has been illogical to say, 'he will not be born again.' Reply: No, for the burning away of all the actions of the man of knowledge has been stated in hundreds of Upanisadic texts such as: 'And all one's actions become dissipated' (Mu. 2.2.8); 'Anyone who knows (that supreme) Brahman, becomes Brahman' (op. cit. 3.2.9); 'For him the delay is for so long only (as he does not become freed)' (Ch. 6.14.2); 'As the fibres at the tip of a blade of reed (become completely burnt৷৷.,' so) all actions 'get completely burnt' (op. cit. 5.24.3). Here too the burning of all actions has been stated in, 'as a blazing fire reduces pieces of wood to ashes,৷৷.'etc. (4.37), and He will also say so (later) [See 18.66: 'I shall free you from all sins,' etc.-Tr.]. This accords with reason also. Verily, actions, which arise from the seed of evils [Klesas, evils-see note under 8.19-Tr.] like ignorance and desires, germinate the sprout of rirth. Here also it has been said by the Lord in various places that actions which are associated with egoism and desire for results bear fruits, not the others. And there is also the verse: 'As seeds burnt by fire do not germinate, so also the Self does not acire another body due to evils that have been burnt by Knowledge (cf. Mbh. Va. 199. 107). Objection: It may be granted for the present that actions performed after the rise of Knowledge are burnt by Knowledge, since they coexist with Knowledge. But the burning away of actions done in this life prior to the rise of Knowledge and those done in the many past lives is not reasonable. Reply: No, because of the alification, 'all actions' (4.37). Objection: May it not be that 'all actions' means those that are undertaken after Illumination? Reply: No, for there is no reason for the restriction (of the meaning). On the other hand, as for the statement, 'just as actions that have produced the present birth and are already active in producing their results do not get dissipated even after Illumination, similarly it is not reasonable that actions which have not commenced producing their results should get dissipated,'-that is wrong. Objection: Why? Reply: Since they have already begun producing results, like an arrow that has been shot: As an arrow, freed earlier from a bow for hitting a target, even after piercing through the target comes to a stop only after falling down as a result of the dissipation of its initial momentum, similarly, actions that produced the (present) body verily continue, even after fulfilling the purpose of maintaining the body, to exist as before until the dissipation of their inherent tendencies. But, as that very arrow, when it has not acired the momentum, needed for action, when it has not been shot even though fixed on the bow, can be withdrawn, similarly, actions which have not begun yielding their results may be rendered unproductive by Knowledge, even while existing in their receptacle. [The internal organ bearing the reflection of Consciousness.] Hence, it is established that , it has been reasonable to state that on the fall of the present body of an enlightened person, 'He is not born again.' Here are being presented these meditation etc. which are the alternative means for the realization of the Self: