श्रीमद् भगवद्गीता

मूल श्लोकः

अर्जुन उवाच

एवं सततयुक्ता ये भक्तास्त्वां पर्युपासते।

येचाप्यक्षरमव्यक्तं तेषां के योगवित्तमाः।।12.1।।

English Commentary By Swami Sivananda



12.1 एवम् thus? सततयुक्ताः ever steadfast? ये who? भक्ताः devotees? त्वाम् Thee? पर्युपासते worship? ये who? च and? अपि also? अक्षरम् the imperishable? अव्यक्तम् the unmanifested? तेषाम् of them? के who? योगवित्तमाः better versed in Yoga.Commentary The twelfth discourse goes to prove that Bhakti Yoga or the Yoga of devotion is much easier than Jnana Yoga or the Yoga of knowledge. In Bhakti Yoga the devotee establishes a near and dear relationship with the Lord. He cultivates slowly and one of the five Bhavas (attitudes) according to his temperament? taste and capacity. The five attitudes are the Santa Bhava (the attitutde of peaceful adoration) Dasya Bhava (the attitude of servant towards the master) Sakhya Bhava (the attitude of a friend) Vatsalya Bhava (the attitude of a parent to the child) and Madhurya Bhava (the attitutde of the lover towards the beloved). The devotee adopts these attitudes towards the Lord. The last (Madhurya Bhava) is the culmination of devotion. It is merging or absorption in the Lord.The devotee adores the Lord. He constantly remembers Him (Smarana). He sings His Name (Kirtana). He speaks of His glories. He repeats His Name. He chants His Mantra (Japa). He prays and prostrates himself. He hears His Lilas (divine plays). He does total? ungrudging and unconditional selfsurrender? obtains His grace? hols communion wih? and eventually gets absorbed in Him.The devotee begins by worshipping the idols or the symbols of God. Then he performs internal worship of the Form. Ultimately he is led to the supreme worship of the allpervading Brahman (Para Puja).Thus As declared in the last verse of the previous chapter.Avyaktam The unmanifested? i.e.? incomprehensible to the senses? transcending all limiting adjuncts. The unmanifested Brahman is beyond all limitations. That which is visible to the senses is called Vyakta or manifest.The hearts of the devotees are wholly fixed on Thee. They worship Thee with all their heart and soul.There are others who worship the unmanifested Brahman which is beyond time? space and causation? which is attributeless? which is eternal and indefinable? which is beyond the reach of speech and mind. These are the wise sages.Of these two? the devotees and the men of knowledge -- who are the better knowers of Yoga (Cf.XI.55)

Hindi Translation Of Sri Shankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary By Sri Harikrishnadas Goenka

।।12.1।।तथा विश्वरूप ( एकादश ) अध्यायमें आपने उपासनाके लिये ही मुझे सम्पूर्ण ऐश्वर्ययुक्त? सबका आदि और समस्त जगत्का आत्मारूप अपना विश्वरूप भी दिखलाया है और वह रूप दिखलाकर आपने मेरे ही लिये कर्म करनेवाला हो इत्यादि वचन भी कहे हैं। इसलिये इन दोनों पक्षोंमें कौनसा पक्ष श्रेष्ठतर है? यह जाननेकी इच्छासे मैं आपसे पूछता हूँ। इस प्रकार अर्जुन बोला --, एवम् शब्दसे जिसके आदिमें मत्कर्मकृत् यह पद है? उस पासमें ही कहे हुए श्लोकके अर्थका अर्थात् एकादश अध्यायके अन्तिम श्लोकमें कहे हुए अर्थका ( अर्जुन ) निर्देश करता है। इस प्रकार निरन्तरतासे उपर्युक्त साधनोंमें अर्थात् भगवदर्थ कर्म करने आदिमें दत्तचित्त हुए -- लगे हुए जो भक्त? अनन्य भावसे शरण होकर पूर्वदर्शित विश्वरूपधारी आप परमेश्वरकी उपासना करते हैं -- उसीका ध्यान किया करते हैं। तथा दूसरे जो समस्त वासनाओंका त्याग करनेवाले? सर्वकर्मसंन्यासी ( ज्ञानीजन ) उपर्युक्त विशेषणोंसे युक्त परम अक्षर? जो समस्त उपाधियोंसे रहित होनेके कारण अव्यक्त है? ऐसे इन्द्रियादि करणोंसे अतीत ब्रह्मकी उपासना किया करते हैं। संसारमें जो इन्द्रियादि करणोंसे जाननेमें आनेवाला पदार्थ है वह व्यक्त कहा जाता है क्योंकि अञ्ज धातुका अर्थ इन्द्रियगोचर होना ही है और यह अक्षर उससे विपरीत अकरणगोचर हैं एवं महापुरुषोंद्वारा कहे हुए विशेषणोंसे युक्त हैं? ऐसे ब्रह्मकी जो उपासना करते हैं। उन दोनोंमें श्रेष्ठतर योगवेत्ता कौन हैं अर्थात् अधिकतासे योग जाननेवाले कौन हैं।

English Translation By Swami Adidevananda

12.1 Arjuna said Those devotees, who, ever integrated, thus meditate on You, and those again, who meditate on the Imperishable and the Unmanifest - which or these have greater knowledge of Yoga?

English Translation By Swami Sivananda

12.1 Arjuna said Those devotees who, ever steadfast, thus worship Thee and those also who worship the imperishable and the unmanifested which of them are better versed in Yoga?

English Translation By Swami Gambirananda

12.1 Arjuna said Those devotees who, being thus ever dedicated, meditate on You, and those again (who meditate) on the Immutable, the Unmanifested-of them, who are the best experiencers of yoga [(Here) yoga means samadhi, spiritual absorption.] ?