श्रीमद् भगवद्गीता

मूल श्लोकः

द्वाविमौ पुरुषौ लोके क्षरश्चाक्षर एव च।

क्षरः सर्वाणि भूतानि कूटस्थोऽक्षर उच्यते।।15.16।।

Sanskrit Commentary By Sri Ramanuja

।।15.16।।क्षरः च अक्षर एव च इति द्वौ इमौ पुरुषौ लोके प्रथितौ। तत्र क्षरशब्दनिर्दिष्टः पुरुषो जीवशब्दाभिलपनीय ब्रह्मादिस्तम्बपर्यन्तक्षरणस्वभावाचित्संसृष्ट सर्वभूतानि अत्र अचित्सङ्गरूपैकोपाधिना पुरुषः इति एकत्वनिर्देशः।अक्षरशब्दनिर्दिष्टः कूटस्थः? अचित्संसर्गवियुक्तः? स्वेन रूपेण अवस्थितो मुक्तात्मा। स तु अचित्संसर्गाभावाद् अचित्परिणामविशेषब्रह्मादिदेहसाधारणो न भवति इति कूटस्थ इति उच्यते।

अत्र अपि एकत्वनिर्देशः अचिद्वियोगरूपैकोपाधिना अभिहितः। न हि इतः पूर्वम् अनादौ काले मुक्त एक एव। यथा उक्तम् -- बहवो ज्ञानतपसा पूता मद्भावमागताः।। (गीता 4।10)मम साधर्म्यमागताः। सर्गेऽपि नोपजायन्ते प्रलये न व्यथन्ति च।। (गीता 14।2) इति।

English Translation of Ramanuja's Sanskrit Commentary By Swami Adidevananda

15.16 There are, the Sastras say, 'two kinds of Persons (Purusas)' well known in the world - 'the perishable and the imperishable.' Of the two, the Persons designated by the term 'perishable' (Ksara) are beings conjoint with non-conscient matter of modifiable nature, from Brahma down to a blade of grass,who can be signified also by the term Jivas (individual selves). Here the term Purusa (Person) is used in singular to indicate the common single condition of being conjoined with non-conscient matter. That which is the 'imperishable' (Aksara) is called 'unchanging' (Kutastha), this is the released self, devoid of association with non-conscient matter, remaining in its own form. It is called 'unchangeable' inasmuch as when free from non-conscient matter, It has no specific connection with particular transformations of non-conscient matter like the bodies of Brahma etc. Here also the designation of the term in singular (as expressing a generic class) denoting the totality of liberated selves, is used on account of the single condition of dissociation from non-conscient matter. It does not mean that before this, in time without beginning, there existed but a single liberated self. So it is stated: 'Purified by the austerity of knowledge, many have attained My state' (4.10); and 'They are not born at the time of creation, nor do they suffer at the time of dissolution' (14.2).

English Translation Of Sri Shankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary By Swami Gambirananda

15.16 There are imau, these; dvau, two-grouped separately; purusau, persons, so called [Persons-so called only figuratively, since they are the limiting adjuncts of the supreme Person.]; loke in the world; the ksarah, mutable-one group consists of the perishable; the other person is the aksarah, immutable, opposite of the former, the power of God called Maya, which is the seed of the origin of the person called the mutable. That which is the receptacle of the impressions of desires, actions, etc. of countless transmigrating creatures is called the immutable person. Who are those persons? The Lord Himself gives the answer: Ksarah, the mutable; consists of sarvani, all; bhutani, things, i.e. the totality of all mutable things. Kutasthah is the one existing as Maya: Kuta means a heap; kutasthah, is that which exists like a heap. Or, kuta is maya, deception, falsehood, crookedness, which are synonymous; that which exists in the diverse forms of maya etc. is the kutasthah. It is ucyate, called; the aksarah, immutable, because, owing to the countless seeds of worldly existence, it does not perish.