श्रीमद् भगवद्गीता

मूल श्लोकः

श्री भगवानुवाच

काम्यानां कर्मणां न्यासं संन्यासं कवयो विदुः।

सर्वकर्मफलत्यागं प्राहुस्त्यागं विचक्षणाः।।18.2।।


English Commentary By Swami Sivananda

18.2 काम्यानाम् (of) desireful? कर्मणाम् of actions? न्यासम् the renunciation? संन्यासम् Sannyasa? कवयः the sages? विदुः understand? सर्वकर्मफलत्यागम् the abandonment of the fruits of all works? प्राहुः declare? त्यागम् abandonment? विचक्षणाः the wise.Commentary Kamya Karmani Activities such as the Asvamedha (a special sacrifice)? etc.? which are performed for the attainment of specific selfish ends. The wise men declare that Tyaga means abandonment of the fruits of all the Nitya and Naimittika works (ordinary and extraordinary or occasional duties).The rootmeaning of the words Sannyasa and Tyaga is to give up. In popular usage Sannyasa and Tyaga are more or less synonymous. Both mean renunciation. The two words do not mean two altogether distinct ideas as stone and fruit? or pot and cloth. They convey the same general idea with a slight distinction.An objector asks It is said that the Nitya and Naimittika actions cannot produce any fruits. Why then is the relinishment of their fruits mentioned here It is like asking for the relinishment of the barren womans sonWe say The objection is not correct. In the opinion of the Lord? ordinary and occasional duties cause their own fruits (vide XVIII.12). Sannyasins alone who have renounced the desire for the fruits of actions will not get the fruits? but other persons will have to reap the fruits of the ordinary and occasional actions.If one renounces all actions after the attainment of Selfrealisation and enters into the fourth order of life (Sannyasa) it is called VidvatSannyasa. If one renounces all actions and enters into the order of Sannyasa for the sake of doing VedantaVichara (or reflection on the truths of the Vedantaphilosophy and on the true significance of the great sentences of the Upanishads which reveal the identity of the individual soul with the Supreme Being) and for thus attaining Selfrealisation? it is called VividishaSannyasa.

Sanskrit Commentary By Sri Shankaracharya

।।18.2।। --,काम्यानाम् अश्वमेधादीनां कर्मणां न्यासं संन्यासशब्दार्थम्? अनुष्ठेयत्वेन प्राप्तस्य अनुष्ठानम्? कवयः पण्डिताः केचित् विदुः विजानन्ति। नित्यनैमित्तिकानाम् अनुष्ठीयमानानां सर्वकर्मणाम् आत्मसंबन्धितया प्राप्तस्य फलस्य परित्यागः सर्वकर्मफलत्यागः तं प्राहुः कथयन्ति त्यागं त्यागशब्दार्थं विचक्षणाः पण्डिताः। यदि काम्यकर्मपरित्यागः फलपरित्यागो वा अर्थः वक्तव्यः? सर्वथा परित्यागमात्रं संन्यासत्यागशब्दयोः एकः अर्थः स्यात्? न घटपटशब्दाविव जात्यन्तरभूतार्थौ।।

ननु नित्यनैमित्तिकानां कर्मणां फलमेव नास्ति इति आहुः। कथम् उच्यते तेषां फलत्यागः? यथा वन्ध्यायाः पुत्रत्यागः नैष दोषः? नित्यानामपि कर्मणां भगवता फलवत्त्वस्य इष्टत्वात्। वक्ष्यति हि भगवान् अनिष्टमिष्टं मिश्रं च (गीता 18।12) इति न तु संन्यासिनाम् (गीता 18।12) इति च। संन्यासिनामेव हि केवलं कर्मफलासंबन्धं दर्शयन् असंन्यासिनां नित्यकर्मफलप्राप्तिम् भवत्यत्यागिनां प्रेत्य (गीता 18।12) इति दर्शयति।।

English Translation By Swami Sivananda

18.2 The Blessed Lord said The sages understand Sannyasa to be the renunciation of action with desire; the wise declare the abandonment of the fruits of all actions as Tyaga.

English Translation Of Sri Shankaracharya's Sanskrit Commentary By Swami Gambirananda

18.2 Some kavayah, learned ones; viduh, know; sannyasam, sannyasa, the meaning of the word sannyasa, the non-performance of what comes as a duty; to be the nyasam, giving up; karmanam, of actions; kamyanam, done with a desire for reward, e.g. Horse-sacrifice etc. Sarva-karma-phala-tyagah, abandonment of the results of all actions, means the giving up of the results accruing to oneself from all actions- the daily obligatory and the occasional (nitya and naimittika) that are performed. Vicaksanah, the adepts, the learned ones; prahuh, call, speak of that; as tyagam, tyaga, as the meaning of the word tyaga. Even if 'the giving up of actions for desired results' or 'the abandonment of results' be the intended meaning, in either case the one meaning of the words sannyasa and tyaga amounts only to tyaga (giving up); they do not imply distinct categories as do the words 'pot' and 'cloth'. Objection: Well, is it not that they say the daily obligatory (nitya) and the occasional (naimittika) rites and duties have no results at all? How is the giving up of their results spoken of-like the abandoning of a son of a barren woman?! Reply: This defect does not desire. It is the intention of the Lord that the nitya-karmas (daily obligatory duties) also have results; for the Lord will say, 'The threefold results of actions-the undesirable, the desirable and the mixed-accrue after death to those who do not resort to tyaga', and also, 'but never to those who resort to sannyasa (monks)' (12). Indeed, by showing that, it is only in the case of sannyasins (monks) alone that there is no connection with the results of actions, the Lord asserts in, '৷৷.accrue after death to those who do not resort to tyaga (renunciation)' (abid.), that the result of daily obligatory (nitya) duties accrue to those who are not sannyasins (monks).